what’s cooler than being cool? supercooling aluminum to near “absolute zero”what’s cooler than being cool? supercooling aluminum to near “absolute zero”what’s cooler than being cool? supercooling aluminum to near “absolute zero”

by:EME LIGHTING     2020-03-14
\"Absolute Zero\" is not just coldit\'s still.
When there is no residual energy in the atom that makes up the object, its motion stops completely.
The rules of physics say it is impossible to cool an object to absolute zero and remove all heat energy before its atoms stop.
But researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology are very close.
In a paper published in Nature on Wednesday, they described the use of lasers to make miniature aluminum barrels colder than anything previously cooled.
In doing so, they challenged the quantum limits of ultra-cold mechanical objects.
The new technology will enable physicists to make something colder than previously thought, says lead author John teffir, a physicist at Boulder\'s NIST factory.
It opens the door to building unprecedented sensitive instruments and understanding quantum mechanics --
One of the most mysterious branches of physics
Better than ever.
It will make you cold, won\'t it? (
Sorry guys, I have to do that. )
Recall that everything in the universe is moving.
Not just in a wide range.
Planets running around the Sun
But the smallest.
Even the most seemingly indifferent objects are buzzing with internal activity.
The atoms that make up a piece of aluminum, like the atoms in the Teufel experiment, always collide and bounce against each other, jumping, rotating, spreading and squeezing together.
This is what physicists refer to when talking about temperature: not an abstract concept of \"warmth\" of an object, but a measurement of its atomic thermal motion.
There are two reasons why physicists are interested in heat.
First of all, if you can remove heat from an object, it becomes more sensitive to external disturbances.
Researchers like LIGO
The lab that detected gravitational waves last year
Hopefully their instruments will be as cool as possible so that they can be sure that any tiny fluctuation is the result of a huge cosmic force, not just a boring hot movement.
Gravity Discovery lets waves in science escape from black holes?
Stephen Hawking pointed out that advanced computing technology could undermine current online security. Eliminating the interference of the thermal motion of an object can make it more interesting for scientists to finally see the motion generated by quantum energy.
It will give us an insight into the power of how the universe works at atomic and subatomic scales.
The researchers have successfully cooled down individual atoms, even quantum gases, until they approach or exceed absolute zero.
But to cool larger solid objects
This is critical to building better instruments and understanding quantum mechanics at a macro level.
It turns out more difficult.
The best technique for removing thermal energy from an object is called side band cooling.
It uses a series of lasers to slow down the atom.
This seems to be counter-intuitive.
We are used to lighting up warm things like the sun.
But in the side band cooling, the angle and frequency of the carefully calibrated light allow the photon to get energy from the atom when the atom interacts.
\"If you send the right light in the right way, you can make sure that the light is always the opposite of the motion of the atom,\" Teufel said . \". (For an in-
For an in-depth explanation of this process, see this great video of PBS. )
Scientists have been using lasers to cool atoms for decades, but their degree of cold is limited.
Quantum mechanics tells us that this is because of the way light works.
It flows not in a continuous stream, but in a discrete packet, called quantum.
Teufel said that each quantum will \"kick\" when it arrives, which means that even if you remove all the energy, a little more heat will be added.
It\'s like trying to float a leaf in the air with a few splash hoses --
Every time the stream swings, the leaves float.
Using the side band cooling technology, researchers at the National Institute of Science and Technology have previously cooled their quantum drums.
A tiny aluminum film that vibrates like a drum.
To the \"ground state of the lowest energy.
\"At this point, the hot movement of the drum is-
Third, its quantum amount of exercise.
Some people think this represents the \"quantum limit\"
According to the law of quantum mechanics, the coldest temperature can be achieved.
\"By lighting things up, you can make them cold, which is the bottleneck that keeps people from getting colder and colder,\" Teufel said . \".
\"The question is, is this the fundamental problem or will we really get cold?
\"He has a hunch that cold is possible if scientists can eliminate the\" kick \"in the light bag.
In order to do this, Teufel and his colleagues \"squeezed\" their lasers and used a special conductive circuit to produce a beam of light in which quantum is forced to order
This does not eliminate all the \"kicks\" of the laser, but it eliminates a lot.
When scientists try again to cool their drums with squeezed light, they get it so that the heat moves into-
Fifth, the size of quantum motion.
This is millions of times colder than room temperature, 10,000 times colder than the space vacuum, and colder than any object before.
Now that it has proven to be effective, the technology can be improved to get colder objects, says Teufel
It may even be as cold as absolutely zero.
\"In principle, if you have the perfect squeeze light, you can do the cool of the beauty,\" he said . \".
\"No matter what research we do next, this is now something we can keep in our skill bag, let\'s always start with a cooler, quieter, better device, this will help any science we try to do.
The \"absolute zero\" of the Washington Post is not just coldit\'s still.
When there is no residual energy in the atom that makes up the object, its motion stops completely.
The rules of physics say it is impossible to cool an object to absolute zero and remove all heat energy before its atoms stop.
But researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology are very close.
In a paper published in Nature on Wednesday, they described the use of lasers to make miniature aluminum barrels colder than anything previously cooled.
In doing so, they challenged the quantum limits of ultra-cold mechanical objects.
The new technology will enable physicists to make something colder than previously thought, says lead author John teffir, a physicist at Boulder\'s NIST factory.
It opens the door to building unprecedented sensitive instruments and understanding quantum mechanics --
One of the most mysterious branches of physics
Better than ever.
It will make you cold, won\'t it? (
Sorry guys, I have to do that. )
Recall that everything in the universe is moving.
Not just in a wide range.
Planets running around the Sun
But the smallest.
Even the most seemingly indifferent objects are buzzing with internal activity.
The atoms that make up a piece of aluminum, like the atoms in the Teufel experiment, always collide and bounce against each other, jumping, rotating, spreading and squeezing together.
This is what physicists refer to when talking about temperature: not an abstract concept of \"warmth\" of an object, but a measurement of its atomic thermal motion.
There are two reasons why physicists are interested in heat.
First of all, if you can remove heat from an object, it becomes more sensitive to external disturbances.
Researchers like LIGO
The lab that detected gravitational waves last year
Hopefully their instruments will be as cool as possible so that they can be sure that any tiny fluctuation is the result of a huge cosmic force, not just a boring hot movement.
Gravity Discovery lets waves in science escape from black holes?
Stephen Hawking pointed out that advanced computing technology could undermine current online security. Eliminating the interference of the thermal motion of an object can make it more interesting for scientists to finally see the motion generated by quantum energy.
It will give us an insight into the power of how the universe works at atomic and subatomic scales.
The researchers have successfully cooled down individual atoms, even quantum gases, until they approach or exceed absolute zero.
But to cool larger solid objects
This is critical to building better instruments and understanding quantum mechanics at a macro level.
It turns out more difficult.
The best technique for removing thermal energy from an object is called side band cooling.
It uses a series of lasers to slow down the atom.
This seems to be counter-intuitive.
We are used to lighting up warm things like the sun.
But in the side band cooling, the angle and frequency of the carefully calibrated light allow the photon to get energy from the atom when the atom interacts.
\"If you send the right light in the right way, you can make sure that the light is always the opposite of the motion of the atom,\" Teufel said . \". (For an in-
For an in-depth explanation of this process, see this great video of PBS. )
Scientists have been using lasers to cool atoms for decades, but their degree of cold is limited.
Quantum mechanics tells us that this is because of the way light works.
It flows not in a continuous stream, but in a discrete packet, called quantum.
Teufel said that each quantum will \"kick\" when it arrives, which means that even if you remove all the energy, a little more heat will be added.
It\'s like trying to float a leaf in the air with a few splash hoses --
Every time the stream swings, the leaves float.
Using the side band cooling technology, researchers at the National Institute of Science and Technology have previously cooled their quantum drums.
A tiny aluminum film that vibrates like a drum.
To the \"ground state of the lowest energy.
\"At this point, the hot movement of the drum is-
Third, its quantum amount of exercise.
Some people think this represents the \"quantum limit\"
According to the law of quantum mechanics, the coldest temperature can be achieved.
\"By lighting things up, you can make them cold, which is the bottleneck that keeps people from getting colder and colder,\" Teufel said . \".
\"The question is, is this the fundamental problem or will we really get cold?
\"He has a hunch that cold is possible if scientists can eliminate the\" kick \"in the light bag.
In order to do this, Teufel and his colleagues \"squeezed\" their lasers and used a special conductive circuit to produce a beam of light in which quantum is forced to order
This does not eliminate all the \"kicks\" of the laser, but it eliminates a lot.
When scientists try again to cool their drums with squeezed light, they get it so that the heat moves into-
Fifth, the size of quantum motion.
This is millions of times colder than room temperature, 10,000 times colder than the space vacuum, and colder than any object before.
Now that it has proven to be effective, the technology can be improved to get colder objects, says Teufel
It may even be as cold as absolutely zero.
\"In principle, if you have the perfect squeeze light, you can do the cool of the beauty,\" he said . \".
\"No matter what research we do next, this is now something we can keep in our skill bag, let\'s always start with a cooler, quieter, better device, this will help any science we try to do.
The \"absolute zero\" of the Washington Post is not just coldit\'s still.
When there is no residual energy in the atom that makes up the object, its motion stops completely.
The rules of physics say it is impossible to cool an object to absolute zero and remove all heat energy before its atoms stop.
But researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology are very close.
In a paper published in Nature on Wednesday, they described the use of lasers to make miniature aluminum barrels colder than anything previously cooled.
In doing so, they challenged the quantum limits of ultra-cold mechanical objects.
The new technology will enable physicists to make something colder than previously thought, says lead author John teffir, a physicist at Boulder\'s NIST factory.
It opens the door to building unprecedented sensitive instruments and understanding quantum mechanics --
One of the most mysterious branches of physics
Better than ever.
It will make you cold, won\'t it? (
Sorry guys, I have to do that. )
Recall that everything in the universe is moving.
Not just in a wide range.
Planets running around the Sun
But the smallest.
Even the most seemingly indifferent objects are buzzing with internal activity.
The atoms that make up a piece of aluminum, like the atoms in the Teufel experiment, always collide and bounce against each other, jumping, rotating, spreading and squeezing together.
This is what physicists refer to when talking about temperature: not an abstract concept of \"warmth\" of an object, but a measurement of its atomic thermal motion.
There are two reasons why physicists are interested in heat.
First of all, if you can remove heat from an object, it becomes more sensitive to external disturbances.
Researchers like LIGO
The lab that detected gravitational waves last year
Hopefully their instruments will be as cool as possible so that they can be sure that any tiny fluctuation is the result of a huge cosmic force, not just a boring hot movement.
Gravity Discovery lets waves in science escape from black holes?
Stephen Hawking pointed out that advanced computing technology could undermine current online security. Eliminating the interference of the thermal motion of an object can make it more interesting for scientists to finally see the motion generated by quantum energy.
It will give us an insight into the power of how the universe works at atomic and subatomic scales.
The researchers have successfully cooled down individual atoms, even quantum gases, until they approach or exceed absolute zero.
But to cool larger solid objects
This is critical to building better instruments and understanding quantum mechanics at a macro level.
It turns out more difficult.
The best technique for removing thermal energy from an object is called side band cooling.
It uses a series of lasers to slow down the atom.
This seems to be counter-intuitive.
We are used to lighting up warm things like the sun.
But in the side band cooling, the angle and frequency of the carefully calibrated light allow the photon to get energy from the atom when the atom interacts.
\"If you send the right light in the right way, you can make sure that the light is always the opposite of the motion of the atom,\" Teufel said . \". (For an in-
For an in-depth explanation of this process, see this great video of PBS. )
Scientists have been using lasers to cool atoms for decades, but their degree of cold is limited.
Quantum mechanics tells us that this is because of the way light works.
It flows not in a continuous stream, but in a discrete packet, called quantum.
Teufel said that each quantum will \"kick\" when it arrives, which means that even if you remove all the energy, a little more heat will be added.
It\'s like trying to float a leaf in the air with a few splash hoses --
Every time the stream swings, the leaves float.
Using the side band cooling technology, researchers at the National Institute of Science and Technology have previously cooled their quantum drums.
A tiny aluminum film that vibrates like a drum.
To the \"ground state of the lowest energy.
\"At this point, the hot movement of the drum is-
Third, its quantum amount of exercise.
Some people think this represents the \"quantum limit\"
According to the law of quantum mechanics, the coldest temperature can be achieved.
\"By lighting things up, you can make them cold, which is the bottleneck that keeps people from getting colder and colder,\" Teufel said . \".
\"The question is, is this the fundamental problem or will we really get cold?
\"He has a hunch that cold is possible if scientists can eliminate the\" kick \"in the light bag.
In order to do this, Teufel and his colleagues \"squeezed\" their lasers and used a special conductive circuit to produce a beam of light in which quantum is forced to order
This does not eliminate all the \"kicks\" of the laser, but it eliminates a lot.
When scientists try again to cool their drums with squeezed light, they get it so that the heat moves into-
Fifth, the size of quantum motion.
This is millions of times colder than room temperature, 10,000 times colder than the space vacuum, and colder than any object before.
Now that it has proven to be effective, the technology can be improved to get colder objects, says Teufel
It may even be as cold as absolutely zero.
\"In principle, if you have the perfect squeeze light, you can do the cool of the beauty,\" he said . \".
\"No matter what research we do next, this is now something we can keep in our skill bag, let\'s always start with a cooler, quieter, better device, this will help any science we try to do.
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